Malays have a word or name is known in a long time span. Malays have a word or a name is mentioned in the year 664/45 BC, and appears first in the record (guest book) empire of China.
Interpreted as a tribe of Malays who came from Indalus (Sumatra) and the Overseas Sumatra (Malacca). In Indalus or Newcastle there are dealing with the kingdom of Bangka Island, there Tatang River and Mount Mahameru and the river called 'Malays'. Its king named Leaf Putra. The word 'Melayu' is still encountered in the languages in the vicinity of Palembang and also in Java, which is connected with the word 'drive', or 'heavy', 'fast'. Then 'melayu' can mean heavy river water flow, can also be interpreted persons or traders who populated agile, dynamic. Malays can also mean a trade, which means stranger.
Malayo identical as a nimble trader. The phenomenon of the word 'Melayu' which is the second time and then rejected this measure with the statement 'melayu' on the points discussed in the previous pragraf also in line with the statement from China's record of a monk named I Tsing (Haan 1897; Schnittger 1939). According to the monk, he had visited the Kingdom of Malays as much as two times, namely in 671 AD and 685 AD
Malays also diidentikan with Islam. The so-called 'people wilt' is a person who embraced Islam, Melayu-speaking and well-mannered customs Malays; no Malays who are not Islamic variety.
Reviews of the Malays of the above approach using the language and meaning of the word 'Melayu' within the meaning of the word. The method is sometimes called the philological method. From the results of these reviews tergambarlah that wilt is a tribe residing on the island of Sumatra, with features like a business and succeed in their commercial shipping. Kelokasian place of tribal origin wither there, where? (About approximate the Malays in Central Sumatra), still very obscure and less obvious presence, or: whether the 'wilt' is just one name only for a seaman and carrying out trade activities in the former?
Malays on philological review only interpret as a tribe that originated from Sumatra and Sumatra Overseas (Malacca). Because the tribe is the trading habits of their customary distribution spread on the island of Java and the whole Indonesian archipelago is also in the other hemisphere.
Malays are also diidentikan with language, is the pioneer of Indonesian. It is inevitable that the basis of this statement as 'Bahasa Melayu' has been familiar since the time of a trade before the Indonesian archipelago. 'Bahasa Melayu' is used as the language of instruction in the past trading activity. The function of Bahasa Melayu as the lingua franca of this, including cultural persebarannya seemed so vast, almost covering the entire coastal area on the banks of the oceans 'interior' of Indonesia.
The text is written from Bahasa Melayu to the structure of the Arabic letters are written based on the assessments with the rules of article writing. Accumulation of elements that facilitate the receipt of sound in both languages (Arabic and Malays) that because there is rime on most of the existing letters in Bahasa Melayu with the existing sound in Arabic. Arabic characters are written without the marker reading is sometimes called Arabic Melayu (pegon). Bahasa Melayu widespread dissemination of rapid advances in trade in line with the local Malays themselves.
Melayu culture greatly influenced the Islamic Religion. Malays are growing in Sumatra surrounding the former kingdoms of Hinduism and Buddhism and animism in the archipelago. The kingdoms were among others: Samudara Pasai in Kalimantan, Sriwijaya in Sumatra, Aceh in Sumatra, Goa in Sulawesi, Aceh and Riau Linga.
Art in Riau
Especially in Riau which is one of the areas of Culture temadun Malays, settled the various ethnic groups such as ethnic Malays are considered as the original and dominant tribe, the tribe of migrants from across Indonesia and isolated tribes. In addition, also settled in this area merchants from overseas nations, namely China. India, Arab and other Nations. The diversity of tribal atmosphere in Riau, indicating the occurrence of acculturation. Culture Malays who dominate initially blended with other congenital culture in Riau.
Kerumpunan Melayu Riau developing in a very dominating. This can not be separated from the historical value of its constituent. Malays are so thick of culture in Riau then allegedly as a marker of sentiment that is about Malays Cultural center. By local governments and of course supported by the entire nation of Indonesia, Culture kemahawarisan Malays who dominate the Riau region has become a cultural center of the tracking process Malays since several years ago with a public mission, namely: is the center of the Riau Malays World Cultures later in the year 2020.
The dominance of Malays in Riau Culture then becomes a sociological factors of the society. Social relations between people of Riau which consists of various inter-cultural roots has put kemahawarisan Culture berakulturasi Malays as a thriving cultural filters there.
Malays are synchronized, there must Cultural fusion of culture and values of Islamic norms. Islamic Religion has also become characteristic of the birth of various forms of creative arts as part of the manifestation of Culture Malays.
Art in the Cultural Malays are part of the value of beauty that arranged beautifully and not separated from the guidance of Islamic norms. Evolving art form consisting of various cultures that differ from sociological factors. Kebudayan Malays (who are also growing in Riau) consists of: 1) Culture Melayu Nobility, 2) Local Melayu Culture / People.
Bangasawan Melayu culture formed from social relationships that occur in the environment Nobility / Kemelayuan Palace. Local Melayu Culture / Folk formed from social relationships that occur in the environment of the people outside the palace. Kebudayan forms from Noble Malays and Malays Kebudayan Local People were embodied in the sociological relationships in a cohesive society. The pattern of these two forms Melayu Culture creates community formation on the characteristics of their respective supporters. Culture Melayu outline is there in life rite communities (birth-life-death), religious rituals and customs, as well as traditional games and art.
Pragraf following series will limit the discussion subject is the art of 'Melayu' is located in the Riau region.
Riau since the former has become a regional trade traffic neighboring countries, so the figure and color of Riau birth culture. This is a burden, as well as the historical-geographical blessing. Riau as if it is meeting the various potential fields of art, in which there is the cultural influence of neighboring countries and cultures of other Indonesian regions. Art Melayu Riau very diverse, as small groups in society are also growing. Differences between Riau and Riau Mainland Ocean shows the diversity of the arts in Riau. This is also a hallmark of Riau Malays, because of mixing the groups formed views about the art of Riau. And in his day, Culture Malays have become a system that changes each time as community supporters who also experienced growth *
Art is one cultural product. In Riau, there are several art forms including performance (theater, dance music, and song) and literature. Especially in the arts performing arts theater in Riau also accumulate in some species and formations (listed; which has identivikasi in the process of documentation and inventory) are: Theatre Royal (Puppet Persi), Berdah, unrequited Occasions, Dul Muluk, Nandung, Mak Yong, Mamanda , supportive, marked, Randai Kuantan, Ship Mail, Ranggung **
Modern Theatre in Riau is the art of theater that developed with the characteristics of regionalism Riau (Cultural Melayu as the identity). In the next section of this paper will be submitted to the authors view the development of Modern Theatre in Riau, where the author is also one of theater artists from a family background in Riau Malays Culture, residing also in Riau and then from 2004 until now to reduce the concentration of creative activities in the region Riau for reasons of his education (arts) outside the Riau region.
*; Need further discussion.
**; Beberapanya in the research process in which one of them (ranggung) is also in the process of research by the authors.
Modern Theatre in Riau-
Considering the development of modern theater in Riau is reviewing an inch story that until now was never finished completely in tamatkan. About the focus of serving in this section the author gives a few paragraphs pragraf containing about point of view of modern theater in Riau on a review of some matter with various inputs and references that have been collected from various parties. As for modern theater in Riau will try in describing through reviews of: 1) Community Art Studio-[theater] in Riau modern, 2) People of Art [theater] Modern in Riau, and 3) Development of Art [theater] in Modern Riau in the objectivity of the various Performance Art [theater] in Riau.
Babakkan remainder of the review of modern theater in Riau is a dish from the above explanation of the various reviews. With reinforce the statement (that) Art [theater] Modern in Riau is a form of serving as a performing arts theater that (objectively author) its development is influenced by a rule of customary norms and Malays art, which are its foundation, namely Islam.
Community Art Studio-tracking [theater] in Riau modern pinned some of the things that the manifold consists of an embryo bakalnya Studio Group is a club or extracurricular activities at a school, and the embryo bakalnya Sanggar Group is the arts community. Community centers and rely supliran funds from parties - parties that are pleasing and indeed obliged to be continuity of their existence. Only a few centers are able to survive by relying on funding to finance the needs of the community of studio-itensitas creative production. Some centers are then sampi with mamou survive now also is one of the main studio has pemarkarsa or a main character is quite influential in-studio community. Unlike the embryo bakalnya community is a community arts, theater schools that are a group of students / learners dependent existence with a system that was in the school and the number of membership and observer presence. Studio-theater phenomenon that embryo bakalnya community is a club or extracurricular activity in school is a circle of sustainability that is missing and the formation of walking along and there is always an interesting phenomenon demikian.Kemudian longer is the existence of dictionaries taeter community / university, which is where this is kelomok can not be categorized as a school group and also can not also be categorized as general community data group. Campus theater community is a group of university students who are interested in creativity Doing Activities theater. Its membership is mostly full of groups of school and community theater are still puzzled / search for the meaning of identity in art taeter as an independent community.
Writers also respond to the presence of neighboring communities are noted as a community theater theater festivals namely the existence of this group can only be found at the time of holding a festival of theatrical events, and then after the festival's activities ended, nor may any usainya community activities.
Name Alm. Idrus Tintin is a precursor to the development taeter seoarng modernd figure in Riau. In the world of acting / theater, a variety of experience he has gained and the many contributions he gave. He is also a writer of poetry and a play either in the form of adaptations or personal work.
Then a few other names are not segaung and segema Alm names. Idrus Tintin. This is either because if an artist is to figure lowprofile Riau theater or indeed the absence of theater artists again in riau?.
The names of other figures riau theater there, but nothing until the legendary and left many marks that can be remembered. This diversity could be due to cultural influences are also Malays. The existence of these things is because the Malays are cultural influences other than the name of glorification in the name of the creator is the attitude of the less respectable.
The diversity of the others which can be deduced from Riau is a variety of theatrical figures of the two common variants, namely: the theater people who know the form of an autodidact theater and theater people who know the form of an autodidact and academic theater. Most people gain knowledge of the autodidact theater theater theatrical tradition is based on activities that are part of the daily activities of what he did with his group. With the development of a theater to be theater modernd the formation of character - character autodidact theater was getting a lot more information in a variety of development works of theater. Autodidact theater and academic figures are figures from some people who seeked pendidiakan in academic theater and also has a theater background knowledge of the range of their activities before taking an academic theater. Variety of theater autodidact, and academic leaders is also usually berlatarkan from membership in a kominitas theater.
Together with communities and groups sanggarnya, figures - figures that only a small theater that stages work regularly. Similarly, the existence of the school studio theater group is staging itensitas them only in the form of festivals and commemoration days of the course.
Is a real advantage of the geographic areas in Riau cross between country and point of interest, as areas of strong Melayu kerumpunan culture. Location Riau as a cross between states allow for forms of acculturation that induce the development of theatrical forms modernd Riau. In addition, the development of Riau theater will get an example of the diversity of various kinds of developments outside the theater. As a point of interest, cultural areas kerumpunan Malays also provide a different color than samples modernd theater performances in Riau. But this can not be maximized. is now formed as a result modernd theater in Riau are still very far behind in development because some of these important notes:
1. Alternative on cultural forms that affect the Malays (directly or not) of modern theater in Riau can not be maximized to distinguish something special,
2. Community group / studio theater in Riau only able to give a show stuck to the process of funding dilemma and the less-expert staging of the production management.
3. Riau theater figures who still have the assumption that the theater only to be an entertainer boredom sideline activities, as well as the existence of people who still think Riau only as a form of theatrical entertainment.
4. The process of debriefing about the theater as a means of communication, one that can not be in priority by the art in Riau
The author realizes that his anxiety in this paper will give an impact on the attitude of disapproval and a statement by the various parties reader. Need an alternative holding discussions ongoing on this paper to create a perfect paper and can be a springboard for the formation of a sociological process of identifying and theater arts modernd Malays in Riau.
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Photo: Mini Theatre Riau